Gagne’s 9 Steps of Instruction (Instructional Design)

Posted by Hugh on December 6, 2013 in Instructional Design and eAuthoring |

Gagné Nine Events of Instructional Design

According to Gagné, learning occurs in a series of learning events. Each of nine learning events are conditions for learning which must be accomplished before the next in order for learning to take place, termed . Similarly, instructional events should mirror the learning events:

  1. Gaining attention:
    1. To ensure reception of coming instruction, the teacher gives the learners a stimulus. Before the learners can start to process any new information, the instructor must gain the attention of the learners. This might entail using abrupt changes in the instruction.
  2. Informing learners of objectives:
    1. The teacher tells the learner what they will be able to do because of the instruction. The teacher communicates the desired outcome to the group.
  3. Stimulating recall of prior learning:
    1. The teacher asks for recall of existing relevant knowledge.
  4. Presenting the stimulus:
    1. The teacher gives emphasis to distinctive features.
  5. Providing learning guidance:
    1. The teacher helps the students in understanding (semantic encoding) by providing organization and relevance.
  6. Eliciting performance:
    1. The teacher asks the learners to respond, demonstrating learning.
  7. Providing feedback:
    1. The teacher gives informative feedback on the learners’ performance.
  8. Assessing performance:
    1. The teacher requires more learner performance, and gives feedback, to reinforce learning.
  9. Enhancing retention and transfer:
    1. The teacher provides varied practice to generalize the capability.

Some educators believe that Gagné’s taxonomy of learning outcomes and events of instruction oversimplify the learning process by over-prescribing (Haines 1996). However, using them as part of a complete instructional package can assist many educators in becoming more organized and staying focused on the instructional goals (Dowling 2001).






Dowling, L. J. (2001). Robert Gagné and the Conditions of Learning, Walden

Haines, D. (1996). Gagné. [On-Line]. Available:  http://education.indiana.edu/~educp540/haines1.htmlUniversity.

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